KRAS Mutation Types, Statistics & Predictive Biomarkers
KRAS G12C is the most prevalent emerging biomarker in NSCLC1,2

NSCLC is a heterogeneous disease associated with several oncogenic mutations2,3

KRAS is the most prevalent driver mutation in NSCLC4,*

Not actionable
  • *In patients with lung adenocarcinoma. NSCLC accounts for 80%–85% of all lung cancer cases, with adenocarcinoma being the most common subtype.4-6
  • ”Other” includes HER2, PIK3CA, MEK1, and patients with no driver mutation detected, but does not include TMB or MSI-H.4

Greater understanding of the heterogeneity of NSCLC has driven personalized approaches to patient management.2

  • Up to 64% of patients with NSCLC may have identifiable driver mutations4
  • Many patients do not receive comprehensive molecular testing7
  • 2-people 



    of all NSCLC KRAS mutations in the US are KRAS G12C8

  • USA 

    Each year,


    new patients with the KRAS G12C mutation are diagnosed with NSCLC in the US1,9

  • Lungs 

    KRAS G12C occurs in

    13% (1 in 8) of patients

    with NSCLC, comparable to the prevalence of all EGFR mutations1,10

Biomarker identification at diagnosis can guide personalized treatment plan interventions2,11-14

  • Sensitizing EGFR mutations
  • BRAF V600E point mutation
  • ALK rearrangements
  • RET rearrangements
  • NTRK gene fusions
  • MET exon 14 skipping mutations
  • ROS1 rearrangements
FDA-approved targeted therapy
  • PD-L1
  • TMB
FDA-approved immunotherapy
  • KRAS  G12C mutations
  • MET amplifications
  • ERBB2 (HER2) alterations
Emerging biomarkers
  • Since KRAS mutations do not usually occur with other driver mutations, patients are unlikely to be eligible for therapies targeting these specific mutations11,15
  • Co-occurring mutations may confer prognostic significance16
  • Clinical guidelines recommend testing for both actionable and emerging biomarkers at diagnosis for all patients with advanced NSCLC14,17-19
  • Many expanded panels already include KRAS, so a patient’s KRAS G12C status may already be known2,14

KRAS G12C mutations can occur regardless of patient characteristics; therefore, consider testing for KRAS in eligible patients with NSCLC at diagnosis8,10,15

ALK, anaplastic lymphoma kinase; BRAF, proto-oncogene B-Raf; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERBB2, erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; KRAS, Kirsten rat sarcoma; MEK1, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1; MET, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; MSI-H, microsatellite instability-high; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; NTRK, neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase; NTRK1, neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase 1; PD-L1, programmed cell death ligand 1; PIK3CA, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, catalytic, alpha polypeptide; RET, rearranged during transfection; ROS1, c-ros oncogene 1; TMB, tumor mutational burden.

References: 1. Data on file, Amgen; 2020. 2. Pennell NA, et al. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2019;39:531-542. 3. Skoulidis F, et al. Nat Rev Cancer. 2019;19:495-509. 4. Pakkala S, et al. JCI Insight. 2018;3:e120858. 5. American Cancer Society. Accessed October 12, 2020. 6. Duma N, et al. Mayo Clin Proc. 2019;94:1623-1640. 7. Gierman HJ, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2019;37:1585. 8. Arbour KC, et al. Clin Cancer Res. 2018;24:334-340. 9. American Cancer Society. Accessed October 12, 2020. 10. Ahmadzada T, et al. J Clin Med. 2018;7:153. 11. American Cancer Society. Accessed October 12, 2020. 12. American Cancer Society. Accessed October 12, 2020. 13. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed October 12, 2020. 14. Lindeman NI, et al. J Thorac Oncol. 2018;13:323-358. 15. Aggarwal S, et al. Presented at: The European Society for Medical Oncology; September 2020; Virtual Congress. 16. Uras IZ, et al. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21:4325. doi:10.3390/ijms21124325. 17. Kalemkerian GP, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36:911-919. 18. Mosele F, et al. Ann Oncol. 2020;S0923-7534(20)39971-3. doi:10.1016/j.annonc.2020.07.014. 19. Gregg JP, et al. Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2019;8:286-301.