KRAS Mutation Types, Statistics & Predictive Biomarkers

Select disease state

KRAS G12C is one of the most
prevalent biomarkers in NSCLC1

Prevalence of oncogenic drivers in non-squamous NSCLC1,*

Prevalence of oncogenic mutations in lung adenocarcinomas
Prevalence of oncogenic mutations in lung adenocarcinomas
Nearly 45% of patients with non-squamous NSCLC have an actionable molecular alteration. KRAS G12C and EGFR make up ~ 75% of all actionable drivers in non-squamous NSCLC1
  • KRAS G12C mutation prevalence
    in squamous NSCLC is 2%1
  • *Molecular alteration prevalence can vary significantly between different datasets and studies. Values in graph based on approximate molecular alteration frequencies from the AACR genie version 12.0 dataset (N=19,777). Participating institutions include academic centers in Western countries. This graph only includes alterations predictive of response to an FDA-approved drug in locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC.1

NSCLC is a heterogeneous disease with an increasing number of actionable and emerging biomarkers. Greater understanding of the heterogeneity of NSCLC has driven personalized approaches to patient management.2,3

  • USA

    Each year,


    new patients with the KRAS G12C mutation are diagnosed with NSCLC in the US4

  • Lungs

    KRAS G12C occurs in


    (1 in 8) of patients

    with non-squamous NSCLC, second only to the prevalence of all EGFR mutations1

  • 2-people



    of patients diagnosed

    with advanced or metastatic non-squamous NSCLC in the US did not receive broad-based genomic testing5

Biomarker identification at diagnosis can guide personalized treatment plan interventions6,7

NSCLC treatments and targeted therapies
  • KRAS G12C mutations
  • Sensitizing EGFR mutations
  • EGFR exon 20 mutations
  • BRAF V600E point mutations
  • ALK rearrangements
  • RET rearrangements
  • NTRK gene fusions
  • MET exon 14 skipping mutations
  • ROS1 rearrangements
  • ERBB2 (HER2) mutations
Actionable molecular biomarkers
  • PD-L1
Actionable immuno-oncology biomarkers
  • High-level MET amplification
Emerging biomarkers
  • KRAS G12C is one of the most common molecular biomarkers that can occur in any patient with NSCLC1
  • KRAS mutations generally occur early and persist as the disease progresses8
  • Since the KRAS G12C mutation rarely co-occurs with other actionable driver mutations, patients are unlikely to be eligible for therapies targeting these specific mutations (eg, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF)9
  • Patients with advanced KRAS G12C–mutated NSCLC are more likely to be smokers, have non-squamous histology, and harbor more STK11 and KEAP1 co-mutations than the overall NSCLC population10
  • Many patients do not receive comprehensive molecular testing11
  • NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) recommend molecular testing, including testing for the KRAS G12C mutation, in eligible patients with advanced NSCLC7

KRAS G12C mutations can occur regardless of patient characteristics; therefore, consider testing for KRAS G12C in all eligible patients with NSCLC at diagnosis10

AACR, American Association for Cancer Research; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma kinase; BRAF, proto-oncogene B-Raf; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERBB2, erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; KEAP1, kelch-like ECH-associated protein; KRAS, Kirsten rat sarcoma; MET, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; NCCN, National Comprehensive Cancer Network; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; NTRK, neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase; PD-L1, programmed cell death ligand 1; RET, rearranged during transfection; ROS1, c-ros oncogene 1; STK11, serine/threonine kinase 11.

References: 1. Data on file, Amgen; [Analysis of AACR Genie v12]. 2. Tan AC, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2022;40:611-625. 3. Pennell NA, et al. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2019;39:531-542. 4. Mullard A, et al. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2019;18:887-891. 5. Hess LM, et al. JTO Clin Res Rep. 2022;3:100336. 6. American Cancer Society. Accessed April 1, 2023. 7. Referenced with permission from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer v.2.2023. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2023. All rights reserved. Accessed February 17, 2023. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to NCCN makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way. 8. Thein KZ, et al. JCO Precis Oncol. 2022;6:e2100547. 9. Skoulidis F, et al. Nat Rev Cancer. 2019;19:495-509. 10. Spira A, et al. Lung Cancer. 2021;159:1-9. 11. Nadler E, et al. Presented at: The American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting; June 2021; Virtual Congress.