KRAS Mutation Types, Statistics & Predictive Biomarkers
KRAS G12C is one of the most
prevalent biomarkers in NSCLC1

Prevalence of oncogenic drivers in non-squamous NSCLC1,2,*

~ 40% of patients with non-squamous NSCLC have an actionable molecular alteration. KRAS G12C is the 9th actionable biomarker in NSCLC1,3
  • KRAS G12C mutation prevalence
    in squamous NSCLC is 2%1
  • *Based on an analysis of NSCLC participants in the AACR GENIE version 8.0 dataset (n=14,485). This graph only includes alterations predictive of response to an FDA-approved drug in locally advanced or metastatic NSCLC.1,2
  • EGFR prevalence does not include exon 20 insertions, which can be found in ~ 2% of the overall NSCLC population.2

NSCLC is a heterogeneous disease with an increasing number of actionable and emerging biomarkers. Greater understanding of the heterogeneity of NSCLC has driven personalized approaches to patient management.4

  • USA 

    Each year,

    ~ 25,000

    new patients with the KRAS G12C mutation are diagnosed with NSCLC in the US5

  • Lungs 

    KRAS G12C occurs in

    13% (1 in 8) of patients

    with non-squamous NSCLC, second only to the prevalence of all EGFR mutations1

  • 2-people 

    Less than


    of all NSCLC patients receive testing for multiple actionable biomarkers6

Biomarker identification at diagnosis can guide personalized treatment plan interventions3,4

  • KRAS G12C mutations
  • Sensitizing EGFR mutations
  • EGFR exon 20 mutations
  • BRAF V600E point mutations
  • ALK rearrangements
  • RET rearrangements
  • NTRK gene fusions
  • MET exon 14 skipping mutations
  • ROS1 rearrangements
Actionable genetic biomarkers
  • PD-L1
  • TMB
Actionable immuno-oncology biomarkers
  • Other KRAS mutations
  • ERBB2 (HER2) alterations
Emerging biomarkers
  • KRAS G12C is one of the most common genetic biomarkers that can occur in any patient with NSCLC1
  • KRAS mutations generally occur early and persist as the disease progresses7
  • Since the KRAS G12C mutation does not often co-occur with other actionable driver mutations, patients are unlikely to be eligible for therapies targeting these specific mutations (eg, EGFR, ALK, ROS1, BRAF)8
  • Patients with advanced KRAS G12C–mutated NSCLC are more likely to be smokers, have non-squamous histology, and harbor more STK11 and KEAP1 co-mutations than the overall NSCLC population9
  • Many patients do not receive comprehensive molecular testing6
  • NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) recommend molecular testing, including testing for the KRAS G12C mutation, in eligible patients with advanced NSCLC10

KRAS G12C mutations can occur regardless of patient characteristics; therefore, consider testing for KRAS G12C in all eligible patients with NSCLC at diagnosis9

AACR, American Association for Cancer Research; ALK, anaplastic lymphoma kinase; BRAF, proto-oncogene B-Raf; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERBB2, erb-B2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2; HER2, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; KEAP1, kelch-like ECH-associated protein; KRAS, Kirsten rat sarcoma; MET, mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition; NCCN, National Comprehensive Cancer Network; NSCLC, non-small cell lung cancer; NTRK, neurotrophic tyrosine receptor kinase; PD-L1, programmed cell death ligand 1; RET, rearranged during transfection; ROS1, c-ros oncogene 1; STK11, serine/threonine kinase 11; TMB, tumor mutational burden.

References: 1. Data on file, Amgen; [Analysis of AACR Genie v8]. 2. Riess JW, et al. J Thorac Oncol. 2018;13:1560-1568. 3. American Cancer Society. Accessed September 9, 2021. 4. Pennell NA, et al. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2019;39:531-542. 5. Mullard A. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2019;18:887-891. 6. Nadler E, et al. Presented at: The American Society of Clinical Oncology Annual Meeting; June 2021; Virtual Congress. 7. McGranahan N, et al. Sci Transl Med. 2015;7:283ra54. 8. Skoulidis F, et al. Nat Rev Cancer. 2019;19:495-509. 9. Spira A, et al. Lung Cancer. 2021;159:1-9. 10. Referenced with permission from the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines®) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer v.6.2021. © National Comprehensive Cancer Network, Inc. 2021. All rights reserved. Accessed September 30, 2021. To view the most recent and complete version of the guideline, go online to NCCN makes no warranties of any kind whatsoever regarding their content, use or application and disclaims any responsibility for their application or use in any way.